Traditional recipes

Tort Godina

Tort Godina


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TOP: Beat the egg whites with the sugar until they become foam, then add the yolks gradually, followed by the walnuts and flour, then pour the dough into a cake tin lined with baking paper.

CREAM: we make the cream from the 4 beaten eggs with the sugar and milk, then boiled in a bain marie, until it thickens. After the cream has cooled, add the beaten butter. Put in the fridge, cool.

We make the cranberry by caramelizing the sugar, over which the crushed walnuts are poured. Mix well, then pour into a pan and leave to cool. When the caramel has hardened, it is broken and ground and then sifted.

Cut the cake into three equal parts, spread the cream and sprinkle the fine caramel over the cream. On top, after spreading the cream well, sprinkle the remaining caramel from the sifted one.


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Corn cake. Core: 600 g braid, 1 cup of pecivo powder, 200 g of margarine, 2 jay, 200 g of sackcloth, 6 sachets of flakes Sve sastojke za koru zajedno umesite, da testo bude srednje tvrdo, i masu podelite na 4-5 loptica Torta je vrlo ukusna i lepo izgleda. Kako pripremiti. Umutiti margarine sa 100g secera u prahu i sa 1 slagom.Kad se dobro umuti dodati 7 zumanaca, mutiti dok se ne dobije gusta smesa.Cokolade 300g istiopiti i prohladjeno dodati u prvi fil , pa otopite čokoladu i nju dodajte pa lepo umutite .. Umutite belanca u čvrst sneg pa lagano umešati u smesu sa čokoladom dok ne dobijete gladak fil .. Po dnu i obodu kalupa ređati piškote natopljene u mleku, pa preko njih staviti frižider da se stegne preko noći

Walnut cream cake - Me and Sanda Mari

Žumanca umutite sa šećerom, dodajte mleko, pa kuvajte na pari dok se šećer ne otopi i krem ​​ne zgusne. Ostavite da se ohladi. Iz konzerve odlijte sok od ananasa i sačuvajte ga za natapanje piškota. Pineapple isechatte and komadiće. Ohlađen krem ​​spojite sa umućenim maslacem, dodajte orahe i još. U Beogradu i svim većim gradovima u Srbiji ova torta je bila omiljena, a danas malo zaboravljena. You would also like: Foamy, fine, delicate: Wedding cakes dressed in cream 10 Flower cakes for a dream wedding Trend Wedding Cakes in 2019 25 Naked Cake Cakes with Fruits and Flowers Jednostavna torta sa sastojcima koje svi vole - dinastija torta je dovoljno velika da počastite sve na rođendanu

Markiza torta sa višnjama. Višnje su uvek odličan izbor onda kada želite da pripremite poseban ukus. Sladunjav krem, mekana kora i višnje su uvek pun pogodak, a posebno kada tortu servirate pred goste Zdravo, katera sadna torta, ki jo sami naredite vam je najboljša? Iščem kakšen recept, da je torta bolj lahka in sočna in z običajnimi sestavinami (kakšne vegan zadeve iz sestavin od bogvekje, me ne zanimajo) Description. Sugar-free cake - It is prepared * from Dobos sheets and chocolate mousse *. Especially for you we have a sugar-free cake that will help you quench your craving for sweets. * with sweetener, based on stevia - Stevia extract is a natural sweetener, extracted from the leaves of the plant of the same name. It has very few calories at all

Ala Sacher cake - Coolin

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  3. INGREDIENTS Countertops - 8 egg whites, - 500 g sugar, - 1 teaspoon lemon juice, - a pinch of salt. Cream - 6 eggs, - 12 tablespoons of sugar, - 250 g butter, - 50 g cocoa, - 200 g. Bitter chocolate, - essence to taste. PREPARATION Countertops Heat the oven to 130-135 degrees

14 recepata na Coolinarici je tagirano tagom torta-od-maka. Poštujemo Vashu privatnost. Kako bi naša stranica radila ispravno i kako bismo stalno unaprjeđivali naše usluge koristimo kolačiće Dijamantova Kuhinja - Torte, šumska torta, cheese cake, čokoladna, keks, bela, crna, dijamant. Greek, snikers, Moscow, sir and beautiful chocolate, reform Sastojci ♦ 250 g margarine ♦ 250 g prah šećera ♦ 100 g pečenih lešnika ♦ 100 g suvog grožđa ♦ 100 g suvih smokava ili drugog suvog voća ♦ 1 duplo pakovanje plazma keksa dobro izradite da dobijete jednoličnu smesu bez grudvica.Suvo voće i pečene lešnike iseckajte što sitnije

Provereni recepti, detaljno objašnjeni postupci i autentične fotografije - sve na jednom mestu! Kuva, fotografiše i piše jedna Maja iz Beograda We present you a delicious cake recipe with vegetables and fish. This is a very appetizing, delicious and filling appetizer, for the preparation of which you will need the simplest and most accessible ingredients. With minimal effort, you get a savory cake, worthy of the festive meal. Surprise your guests with an original salad and praise will not be long in coming. A tasting tog drugog regionalnog slatkisa od maka, doprinijela je da se tri komada takodjer nadju u nasoj kesi, mom muzu za slatku krizu

KaufMA corn cake

  1. 1. red - ljeknjaci: 15 dag lješnjaka (prepečeni, oguljeni, krupno nasjeckani) 2. red - biskvit: 6 bjelanjaka 6 žlica šećera 6 žlica brašna Krema (žuta i čokoladna): 6 žumanjaka 10 dag šlice 1 l mlijeka 2 vanilin šećera 25 dag putra 10 dag štaub šećera Za čokoladnu [
  2. uta u vreloj vodi (da im omekša kožica.
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  4. Sastojci za kore: 10 belanaca 250 g Sunoko šećera 200 g seckanih oraha 250 g seckanih urmi 4 kašike brašna. Sastojci za fil: 10 žumanaca 10 kašika Sunoko šećera u prahu 100 g čokolade za kuvanj
  5. uta! Sastojci: 500 ml slatke pavlake 200 gr šećera u prahu 500 gr kisele pavlake 300 gr malina ili neko

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Katera sadna torta vam je najboljša? - MedOverNe

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What Lucian Mîndruță wrote

A few hours before Godină's post, the radio producer Lucian Mîndruță had advanced this hypothesis.

& # 8222What are the rules for intervention in a kidnapping? We know a version: the one from the movies. When the kidnapper is shot by snipers, even doing nothing but threatening to kill one of his hostages. Of course, negotiation is ideal, especially if you still hope that the end can be bloodless. And yet, the police had him at gunpoint at least once: we have pictures of him on the balcony, gesturing. Should he have fired? My guess is that the rules don't allow that. And I think they should be changed & # 8221, wrote, among others, Mîndruță on Facebook.


Contents

"Turtle" is a common name and may be used without knowledge of taxonomic distinctions. [3] [4] In particular, "turtle" may denote the order as a whole, as in North American usage, [5] [6] or a non-monophyletic form taxon within the order, or only aquatic species, as in British usage. [7] [6]

Animals in the order are often called chelonians by veterinarians, scientists, and conservationists. The name "Chelonia", now a synonym for the order, is based on the Greek word for "turtle", χελώνη Chelonia Greek χέλυς chelys "tortoise" is used in the formation of names of many turtle taxa. [8] The name of the order, "Testudines", is based on the Latin word for tortoise, turtle. [9]

The largest living species of turtle, and fourth largest reptile, is the leatherback turtle which can grow up to 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) and weigh over 500 kg (1,100 lb). [10] On land, the Galápagos tortoises have reached lengths of 1.87 m (6.1 ft), [11] and weights of over 417 kg (919 lb). [12] The largest known turtle was Archelon ischyros, a Late Cretaceous sea turtle up to 4.6 m (15 ft) long [13] and estimated to have weighed around 2,200 kg (4,900 lb). [14] The smallest living turtle is the speckled padloper tortoise of South Africa. It measures no more than 8 cm (3.1 in) in length, and weighs about 140 g (4.9 oz). [15]

Shell

The shell of a turtle is unique among vertebrates and serves to protect the animal and provide shelter from the elements. [16] [17] [18] It is primarily made of bone, and consists of two parts, the carapace which usually contains 50–60 bones and covers the back of the animal while the plastron has 7–11 bones and covers the belly . They are connected by lateral extensions of the plastron. The carapace is fused with the vertebrae and ribs while the plastron is formed from bones of the shoulder girdle, sternum, and dermal bones, gastralia. [16] During development, the ribs grow sideways into the carapacial ridge, unique to turtles, entering the dermis of the back to support the carapace. [19] The development is signaled locally by fibroblast growth factors including FGF10. [19] The shoulder girdle in turtles is made up of two bones, the scapula and the procoracoid. [20] Both the anterior and posterior pelvis of turtles are located within the shell and hence are effectively within the rib-cage the trunk ribs grow over the shoulder girdle during development. [21]

The outer surface of the shell is covered in epidermal scales known as scutes which are made of keratin, the same substance that makes up human hair and fingernails. Typically, a turtle has 38 scutes on the carapace and 16 on the plastron 54 in total. Carapace scutes are divided into "marginals" around the margin, "vertebrals" over the vertebral column, in many species an extra singular scute between the first marginals called the "cervical" is present, and "costals" between the marginals and vertebrals. Plastron scutes include throat, humeral, abdominal, femoral and anal. The side necked turtles of the Pleurodira have an extra plastral scute called the "intergular." Turtle scutes usually interlock like mosaic tiles, though in some species, like the hawksbill sea turtle, the scutes on the carapace can overlap. [22]

The shapes of turtle shells vary with the adaptations of the individual species. and sometimes with gender. Land-dwelling turtles tend to have more domed shells, which appear to make them more resistant to being crushed by large animals. Aquatic turtles have flatter, smoother shells which allow them to cut though the water. Sea turtles in particular have streamlined shells which reduce drag and increase stability in the open ocean. Some turtle species have ridged, lumped, or spiked shells which provide extra protection from predators and camouflage against patterned backgrounds. The humps of a tortoise shell may tilt its body when it gets flipped over, allowing it to flip back. In male tortoises, the lead edge of the plastron is thickened it is used for butting and ramming during combat. [2. 3]

Shells vary in flexibility. In tortoises, the plastron and its extensions lock the sides of the carapace together, giving it even greater crushing resistance. Some species, such as box turtles, lack the extensions and instead have the carapace bones fully fused or ankylosed together, creating a single unit. Several species have hinges on their shells, usually on the plastron, which allow them to expand and contract. Softshell turtles have rubbery edges, due to the loss of bones. The leatherback turtle has hardly any bones in its shell, which instead consists of thick connective tissue covered in leathery skin. [24]

Jackson (2002) suggested that the turtle shell can function as a pH buffer. To endure through anoxic conditions, such as winter periods beneath ice or within anoxic mud at the bottom of ponds, turtles utilize two general physiological mechanisms: their shell releases carbonate as a buffer, and takes up lactic acid. [25]

Head and neck

The turtle's skull is unique among living amniotes it is solid and rigid with no openings for muscle attachment (temporal window). [26] [27] Muscles instead attach to recesses in the back of the skull. [27] Living turtles also lack teeth but have a bony cusp that may be beak-like or have serrations. Cusps are covered in keratin which usually have a sharp edge for cutting and slicing. [26] [28] Turtle skulls vary in shape from the elongated skulls of softshells to the broad and flattened skull of the mata mata. [27] Some turtle species have developed proportionally large and thick heads, allowing for greater muscle mass and stronger bites. [29] Turtles that are carnivorous or durophagous (eating hard-shelled animals), such as Mesoclemmys nasuta, have the most powerful bites, in its case 432 lbf (1,920 N) species that are insectivorous, piscivorous or omnivorous have lower bite forces. [30]

The necks of turtles are highly flexible, possibly to compensate for their rigid shells. Some species, like sea turtles, have short necks while others, such as snake-necked turtles, have very long ones. Despite this, all turtle species have eight neck vertebrate a consistency not found in other reptiles but paralleled in mammals. Some snake-necked turtles have both long necks and large heads and thus have difficulty lifting them when not in water. [31]

Limbs and locomotion

Turtles are slow-moving on land, because of their heavy shells a desert tortoise moves at only .22 – .48 km / h (0.14–0.30 mph). By contrast, sea turtles can swim at 30 km / h (19 mph). [16] The limbs of turtles are adapted for various means of locomotion and habits and most have five toes. Tortoises are specialized for terrestrial environments and have column-like legs with elephant-like feet with short toes. The gopher tortoise has flattened front-limbs for digging in the substrate. Aquatic turtles have more flexible legs and longer toes with webbing, getting them thrust in the water. Some of these species, such as snapping turtles and mud turtles, mainly walk along the water bottom, much as they would on land. Others, such as terrapins, swim by paddling with all four limbs with the simultaneous retraction of the opposing front and hind limbs, helping them maintain their direction while thrusting. [16] [32]

Sea turtles and the pig-nosed turtle are the most specialized for aquatic locomotion. Their front limbs have evolved into flippers while the shorter hind limbs are shaped more like rudders. The front limbs provide most of the thrust for swimming, while the hind limbs serve as stabilizers. [16] [34] Sea turtles such as Chelonia mydas rotate the front limb flippers like a bird's wings so as to generate a propulsive force on both the upstroke and on the downstroke. This is in contrast to similar-sized freshwater turtles (measurements having been made on young animals in each case) such as Mauremys caspica, which use the front limbs like the oars of a rowing boat, creating substantial negative thrust on the recovery stroke in each cycle. In addition, the streamlining of the marine turtles reduces drag. As a result, marine turtles produce a propulsive force twice as large, and swim six times as fast, as freshwater turtles. The swimming efficiency of young marine turtles is similar to that of fast-swimming fish of open water, like mackerel. [33]

Compared to other reptiles, turtles tend to have reduced tails, but these vary in both length and thickness among species and between sexes. They are especially large in snapping turtles and the big-headed turtle, the latter of which uses its tail to balance itself while climbing. The cloaca is at the base of the tail, and the tail itself houses the reproductive organs. Hence, males have longer tails to accommodate the penis. In sea turtles, the tail is longer and also somewhat prehensile males use it to grasp females when mating. Several turtle species have spines on their tails. [35] [26]

Senses

Turtles make use of vision to find food and mates, to avoid predators, and to orient themselves.The retina's light-sensitive cells include both rods for vision in low light, and cones with three different photopigments for bright light, where they have full color vision. There is possibly a fourth type of cone that detects ultraviolet hatchling sea turtles respond experimentally to ultraviolet light, but it is unknown if they can distinguish this from longer wavelengths. A freshwater turtle, the red-eared slider, has an exceptional seven types of cone cell defined by the color of their oil droplets and their photopigments. [36]

Sea turtles orient themselves on land by night, using visual features detected in dim light they use their eyes in all conditions from clear surface water to muddy coasts and the darkness of the deep ocean, and with their heads above water. Unlike in terrestrial turtles, the cornea, the curved surface that lets light into the eye, does not help to focus light on the retina, so focusing underwater is handled entirely by the lens, behind the cornea. The cone cells contain oil droplets placed to shift perception towards the red part of the spectrum this improves color discrimination. Visual acuity, studied in hatchlings, is highest in a horizontal band with retinal cells packed about twice as densely as elsewhere this gives the best vision along the visual horizon. Sea turtles do not appear to use polarized light for orientation as many other animals do. The deep-diving leatherback turtle lacks specific adaptations to low light, such as large eyes, large lenses, or a reflective tapetum it may rely on seeing the bioluminescence of prey when hunting in deep water. [36]

Turtles have ear-structures inside their heads they are sensitive to low tones around 100 Hertz, but their hearing fades away at higher frequencies and they are unable to hear tones above around 500 Hertz. [37] Among sea turtles, the loggerhead has been shown experimentally to respond both by behavior and by evoked electrical signals to low sounds, with maximal sensitivity between 100 and 400 Hertz. [38]

Like other vertebrates, turtles have an olfactory sense and an olfactory bulb in the brain. Experiments on green sea turtles showed they could learn to respond to a selection of different odorant chemicals (such as triethylamine and cinnamaldehyde) detected by olfaction in the nose. Such signals could be used in navigation. [39]

Breathing

Although many turtles spend large amounts of their lives underwater, all turtles and tortoises breathe air and must surface at regular intervals to refill their lungs. Immersion periods vary between a minute and an hour depending on the species. [40] Some turtles spend much or all of their lives on dry land. Aquatic respiration in Australian freshwater turtles is currently being studied. Some species have large cloacal cavities that are lined with many finger-like projections. These projections, called papillae, have a rich blood supply and increase the surface area of ​​the cloaca. The turtles can take up dissolved oxygen from the water using these papillae, in much the same way that fish use gills to breathe. [41]

Respiration, for many amniotes, is achieved by the contraction and relaxation of specific muscle groups (ie intercostals, abdominal muscles, and / or a diaphragm) attached to an internal rib-cage that can expand or contract the body wall thus assisting airflow in and out of the lungs. [42] The ribs of turtles, however, are, uniquely, fused with their carapace and external to their pelvic and pectoral girdles. This rigid shell is not capable of expansion, so the turtles have had to evolve special adaptations for respiration. [43] [44] They ventilate their lungs using specific groups of abdominal muscles attached to their viscera and shell that pull the lungs ventrally during inspiration, where air is drawn in via a negative pressure gradient. [42] In expiration, the contraction of the transversus abdominis muscle propels the viscera into the lungs and expels air under positive pressure. [43] Conversely, the relaxing and flattening of the oblique abdominis muscle pulls the transversus back down which, once again, draws air back into the lungs. [43] Important auxiliary muscles used for ventilatory processes are the pectoralis, which is used in conjunction with the transverse abdominis during inspiration, and the serratus, which moves with the oblique abdominal accompanying expiration.

The lungs of Testudines are multi-chambered and attached their entire length down the carapace. The number of chambers can vary between taxa, though most commonly they have three lateral chambers, three medial chambers, and one terminal chamber. [45] As previously mentioned, the act of specific abdominal muscles pulling down the viscera (or pushing back up) is what allows for respiration in turtles. Specifically, it is the large liver turtles that pulls or pushes on the lungs. [43] Ventral to the lungs, in the coelomic cavity, the liver of turtles is attached directly to the right lung, and their stomach is directly attached to the left lung by the ventral mesopneumonium, which is attached to their liver by the ventral mesentery . [43] When the liver is pulled down, inspiration begins. Supporting the lungs is the post-pulmonary septum, which is thought to prevent the lungs from collapsing. [46]

Circulation

Turtles share the linked circulatory and pulmonary systems of vertebrates, in which the heart pumps deoxygenated blood through the lungs, and then pumps the returned oxygenated blood through the body's tissues, but the turtle cardiopulmonary system has both structural and physiological adaptations that distinguish it from other vertebrates. Turtles have a large lung volume they can shunt blood through non-pulmonary blood vessels, including some within the heart, to avoid the lungs while they are not breathing they can hold their breath for much longer periods than other reptiles they can tolerate the resulting low oxygen levels they can moderate the increase in acidity during anaerobic respiration by chemical buffering and they can lie dormant for months, in aestivation or brumation. [47]

The heart has two atria but only one ventricle. The ventricle is subdivided into three chambers a muscular ridge enables a complex pattern of blood flow, so that the blood can be directed either to the lungs via the pulmonary artery, or to the body via the aorta. The ability to separate the two outflows varies between species the leatherback has a powerful muscular ridge enabling almost complete separation of the outflows, supporting its actively swimming lifestyle, whereas the ridge is less well developed in freshwater turtles like the sliders (Trachemys). [47]

Turtles are capable of longer periods of anaerobic respiration than many other vertebrates. This process breaks down sugars incompletely to lactic acid, rather than all the way to carbon dioxide and water as in aerobic respiration. They make use of the shell to buffer the increasing acidity of the body fluids that this causes. [47]

Osmoregulation

Charles Darwin noted that the Galapagos tortoise had a bladder which could store up to 20% of its body weight. [48] ​​Such xerocole adaptations are the result of environments such as remote islands and deserts where water is very scarce. [49] The urine is normally very low in solutes, mainly potassium ions from food plants. The bladder's wall is permeable, so when the animal becomes dehydrated, water returns by osmosis from the bladder to the blood, and the urine's solute concentration rises until it approaches that of the blood plasma. In this way the bladder serves as a reserve store of water. [48]

Turtles have two or more accessory urinary bladders, located lateral to the neck of the urinary bladder and dorsal to the pubis, occupying a significant portion of their body cavity. [50] The bladder is usually bilobed with a left and right section. The right section is located under the liver, which prevents large stones from remaining in that side while the left section is more likely to have stones. [51]

To regulate the amount of salt in their bodies, sea turtles and diamondback terrapins secrete excess salt in a thick sticky substance from their lacrimal glands. When on land, sea turtles may appear to be "crying". [52]

Thermoregulation

Turtles, like other reptiles, have a limited ability to regulate their body temperature this varies between species, and with body size. Small pond turtles regulate their temperature by crawling out of the water and basking in the sun, while small terrestrial turtles move between sunny and shady places to adjust their temperature. Large species, both terrestrial and marine, have sufficient mass to give them substantial thermal inertia, meaning that they heat up or cool down over many hours. The Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys giant) weighs up to some 60 kilograms (130 lb), and is able to allow its temperature to rise to some 33 Celsius on a hot day, and to fall naturally to around 29 Celsius by night. Some giant tortoises seek out shade to avoid overheating on sunny days. On Grand Terre Island, food is scarce inland, but shade is scarce near the coast, and the tortoises compete for space under the few trees on hot days large males may push smaller females out of the shade, and some then overheat and die. [53]

Adult sea turtles, too, have large enough bodies that they can to some extent control their temperature. The largest, the leatherback, can swim in the waters off Nova Scotia which may be as cool as 8 ° C (46 ° F) their body temperature has been measured at up to 12 ° C (54 ° F) warmer than the surrounding water . To help keep their temperature up, they have a system of countercurrent heat exchange in the blood vessels between their body core and the skin of their flippers the vessels supplying the head are insulated by fat around the neck. [53]

Diet and feeding

Most turtle species are opportunistic omnivores landing-dwelling species being more herbivorous and aquatic ones being more carnivorous. [29] Generally lacking speed and agility, most turtles feed either on plant material or on sedentary animals like mollusks, worms and insect larvae. [16] Some species, such as the African helmeted turtle and snapping turtles, eat fish, amphibians, reptiles (including other turtles), birds and mammals they may take them by ambush but also scavenge. [54] The alligator snapping turtle has a worm-like appendage on this tongue which it uses to lure fish into its mouth. Tortoises are the most herbivorous group, consuming grasses, leaves, and fruits. [55] Many turtle species, including tortoises, supplement their diet with eggshells, animal bones, hair and droppings for extra nutrients. [56]

Turtles generally eat their food in a straightforward way, though some species have special feeding techniques. [16] The yellow-spotted river turtle and the painted turtle filter feed by skimming the water surface with their mouth and throat open to collect food particles. When the mouth closes, the throat constricts excess water is pushed out through the nostrils and the gap in between the almost closed jaws. [57] Some species, like the mata mata, employ a "gape-and-suck method" where the turtle opens its jaws and expands its throat widely, sucking the prey in. [16] [58]

The diet of an individual within a species may change with age, sex, and season, and may differ between populations. In many species, juveniles are generally carnivorous but become more herbivorous as adults. [16] [59] With Barbour's map turtle, the larger female mainly eats mollusks while the male eats mostly arthropods. [16] Blanding's turtle may feed mostly on snails or crayfish depending on the population. The European pond turtle has been recorded being mostly carnivorous much of the year but switching to water lilies during the summer. [60] Some species have developed specialized diets such as the Mekong snail-eating turtle, the hawksbill, which specializes on sponges, and the leatherback, which feeds on jellyfish. [16]

Communication

While typically thought of as mute, turtles make various sounds when communicating. Tortoises may be vocal when courting and mating. Various species of both freshwater and sea turtles emit numerous types of calls, often short and low frequency, from the time they are in the egg to when they are adults. These vocalizations may serve to create group cohesion when migrating. [61]

Migration

Turtles are the only reptiles that migrate long distances, up to thousands of kilometers in marine species some non-marine turtles such as species of Geochelone (terrestrial), Chelydra (freshwater), and Malaclemys (estuarine) migrate seasonally over much shorter distances, up to around 27 kilometers (17 mi), to reach favored egg-laying sites. Such short migrations are comparable to those of some lizards, snakes, and crocodilians. [62]

Both young and mature sea turtles undertake far longer migrations. They nest in a specific area, such as a beach, leaving the eggs to hatch unattended. The young turtles leave that area, migrating long distances in the years or decades in which they grow to maturity, and then return seemingly to the same area every few years to mate and lay eggs, though the precision varies between species and populations. This "natal homing" has appeared remarkable to biologists, though there is now plentiful evidence for it, including from genetics. [63]

The mechanism by which sea turtles navigate to their breeding beaches remains unknown. One possibility is imprinting as in salmon, where the young learn the chemical signature, effectively the scent, of their home waters before leaving, and remember that when the time comes for them to return as adults. Another possible cue is the orientation of the earth's magnetic field at the natal beach there is experimental evidence that turtles have an effective magnetic sense, and that they use this in navigation. [63] Proof that homing occurs is derived from genetic analysis of populations of loggerheads, hawksbills, leatherbacks, and olive ridleys by nesting place for each of these species, the populations in different places have their own mitochondrial DNA genetic signatures which persist over the years , showing that the populations are distinct, so that homing must be occurring reliably. [63]

Defense

When sensing danger, a turtle may flee, freeze or withdraw into its shell. Freshwater turtles flee into the water, though the Sonora mud turtle may take refuge on land as the shallow temporary ponds they inhabit make them more vulnerable. [64] When startled, a softshell turtle may dive underwater and bury itself under the floor. [65] If a predator persists, the turtle may bite or discharge from its cloaca. Several species produce foul-smelling chemicals from musk glands. Other tactics include threat displays and, in the case of Bell's hinge-back tortoise, playing dead. When attacked, big-headed turtle hatchlings squeal, possibly startling the predator. [66]

Intelligence

Case studies exist of play behavior in some turtle species. [67] They do, however, have a very low encephalization quotient (relative brain to body mass), and their hard shells enable them to live without fast reflexes or elaborate predator avoidance strategies. [68] In the laboratory, turtles (Pseudemys nelsoni) can learn novel operant tasks and have demonstrated a long-term memory of at least 7.5 months. [69] Similarly, giant tortoises can learn and remember tasks, and master lessons much faster when trained in groups. [70] Remarkably, tortoises that were tested nine years after the initial training still retained the operant conditioning. [71]

Turtles have a wide variety of mating behaviors, but do not form pair-bonds or social groups. [72] Females generally outnumber males, as seen in green turtles, and as a result, most males copulate with multiple partners throughout their lifespan. [73] Most terrestrial species are sexually dimorphic, with males larger than females fighting between males often establishing a dominance hierarchy for access to food and mates, [72] including in the Galápagos tortoise. [74] For most semi-aquatic and bottom-walking aquatic species, combat occurs less often males of these species instead often use their size advantage to mate forcibly. In fully aquatic species, males are often smaller than females, and rely on courtship displays to gain mating access to females. [75]

Courtship and mounting

Courtship varies between species, and with habitat. In red-eared sliders, a fully aquatic species, the male courts the female by extending his forelegs with the palms facing out and fluttering his forelegs in the female's face. [76] Female choice is important in this method, and the females of some species, such as green sea turtles, are not always receptive. As such, they have evolved behaviors to avoid the male's attempts at copulation, such as swimming away, confronting the male followed by biting, or taking up a refusal position in which the female assumes a vertical position with her limbs widely outspread and her plastron facing the male. If the water is too shallow for the refusal position, the females resort to beaching themselves, as the males will not follow them ashore. [73]

All turtles fertilize internally mounting and copulation can be difficult. In many species, males have a concave plastron that fits with the female's carapace. In species like the Russian tortoise, the male has a lighter shell and longer legs. The high, rounded shells of box turtles are particular obstacles for mounting the male eastern box turtle leans backwards into position and hooks onto the back of the female's plastron. [77] Aqautic turtles mount in water which is easier for both sexes. [78] [79] Some female turtles can store sperm from multiple males and their egg clutches can have multiple sires. [80] [72]

Forced copulation occurs in some species. The male scorpion mud turtle relies on overpowering females with its larger size. [75] The male approaches the female from the rear, and often resorts to aggressive methods such as biting the female's tail or hind limbs, followed by a mounting. [81] Male radiated tortoises use surrounding vegetation to trap or prevent females from escaping, then pin them down for copulation. [82]

Eggs and hatchlings

Turtles, including sea turtles, lay their eggs on land, although some lay eggs close to or in shallow water whose levels rise and fall. While most species build nests and lay eggs where they forage, some travel miles. The common snapping turtle walks 5 km (3.1 mi) on land to lay eggs, while sea turtles travel even further the leatherback swims some 12,000 km (7,500 mi) to its nesting beaches. [79] [16] Most turtles prepare a nest for their females eggs usually dig a flask-like chamber in the substrate. Other species lay their eggs in vegetation or crevices. [83] Females choose nesting locations based on environmental factors such as temperature and humidity, which are important for developing embryos. [79] The number of eggs laid varies from 10 to over 100 depending on the species. Larger females can lay eggs that are greater in number or bigger in size. Compared to freshwater turtles, tortoises deposit fewer but larger eggs. Females can lay multiple clutches throughout a season, particularly in species that experience unpredictable monsoons. [84]

Most mother turtles do no more in the way of parental care than covering their eggs and immediately leaving, though some species guard their nests for days or weeks. [85] Eggs vary between spherical, oval and elongated and between hard- and soft-shelled.[86] Most species have their sex determined by temperature in some species, higher temperatures produce females and lower ones produce males, while in others, intermediate temperatures produce males and both hot and cold extremes produce females. [16] There is experimental evidence that the embryos of Mauremys reevesii can move around inside their eggs to select the optimal temperature for development, thus influencing their sexual destiny. [87] In other species, sex is genetically determined. The length of incubation for turtle eggs varies from two to three months for temperate species, and four months to over a year for tropical species. [16] Species that live in warm temperate climates may go though embryonic diapause. [88]

When ready to hatch, young turtles break out of the shell using a sharp projection on their upper beak. Hatchlings dig out of the nest and find cover in vegetation or water. Some species remain in the nest for longer, be it for overwintering or to wait for rain to soften the soil for them to dig out. [16] Turtles are highly vulnerable to predators, both in the egg and as hatchlings. Mortality is high during this period but significantly decreases when they reach adulthood. Most species grow rapidly during their early years and slow down when they are mature. [89]

Lifespan

Turtle can live very long lives a Galápagos tortoise collected by Charles Darwin in 1835 died in 2006, living for at least 176 years though most wild turtles do not reach that age. Turtles keep growing new scutes under the previous scutes every year, allowing researchers to estimate their age [90] they senesce very slowly. [91] The survival rate for adult turtles can reach 99 percent. [16]

Fossil history

Zoologists have sought to explain the evolutionary origin of the turtles, and in particular of their unique carapace. In 1914, J. Versluys proposed that bony plates in the dermis, osteoderms, fused to the ribs beneath them. The theory persisted into the 21st century, when Olivier Rieppel proposed a hypothetical turtle precursor, its back covered by bony armor plates in the dermis, which he called the "Polka Dot Ancestor". [21] [92] The theory accounted for the evolution of fossil pareisaurs from Bradysaurus to Anthodon, but not for how the ribs could have become attached to the bony dermal plates. [21] Recent stem-turtle fossil discoveries provide a different but "comprehensive scenario" of the evolution of the turtle's shell. A fossil that may be a stem-turtle from the Permian of South Africa, Eunotosaurus, had a short broad trunk, and a body-case of broadened and somewhat overlapping ribs, suggesting an early stage in the acquisition of a shell. [21]

A stem-turtle from the Middle Triassic, Pappochelys, has more distinctly broadened ribs, T-shaped in cross-section. [21] A Late Triassic stem-turtle from Guizhou, China, Eorhynchochelys, is a much larger animal, up to 1.8 meters (5.9 ft) long, with a long tail, and broadened but not overlapping ribs like the earlier fossils, it has small teeth. [21] Also in the Late Triassic, the freshwater Odontochelys semitestacea of Guangling in southwest China has a partial shell, consisting of a complete bony plastron and an incomplete carapace. [93] The development of a shell reaches completion with the late Triassic Proganochelys. It lacked the ability to pull its head into its shell, and had a long neck and a long, spiked tail ending in a club, somewhat like an ankylosaur. [94]

Once a complete shell was in place, turtles underwent an adaptive radiation in the Jurassic, greatly increasing the number and diversity of fossil species. In a few places, paleontologists have unearthed large numbers of Jurassic or Cretaceous turtle skeletons accumulated in a single area, such as the Nemegt Formation in Mongolia, the Turtle Graveyard in North Dakota, the Black Mountain Turtle Layer in Wyoming), and in Shanshan County , Xinjiang, where over a thousand ancient freshwater turtles died after the last water hole in an area dried out during a major drought. [95] [96] Hatchling and nestling size fossils have been documented. [97]

External phylogeny

The turtles' exact ancestry has been disputed. It was believed they are the only surviving branch of the ancient evolutionary grade Anapsida, which includes groups such as procolophonids, millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs. All anapsid skulls lack a temporal opening while all other extant amniotes have temporal openings (although in mammals, the hole has become the zygomatic arch). The millerettids, protorothyrids, and pareiasaurs became extinct in the late Permian period and the procolophonoids during the Triassic. [98]

It was later suggested that the anapsid-like turtle skull may be due to reversion rather than to anapsid descent. More recent morphological phylogenetic studies with this in mind placed turtles firmly within diapsids, slightly closer to Squamata than to Archosauria. [99] [100] All molecular studies have strongly upheld the placement of turtles within diapsids some place turtles within Archosauria, [101] or, more commonly, as a sister group to extant archosaurs, [102] [103] [104] [ 105] though an analysis conducted by Lyson et al. (2012) recovered turtles as the sister group of lepidosaurs instead. [106] Reanalysis of prior phylogenies suggests that they classified turtles as anapsids both because they assumed this classification (most of them studying what sort of anapsid turtles are) and because they did not sample fossil and extant taxa broadly enough for constructing the cladogram. Testudines were suggested to have diverged from other diapsids between 200 and 279 million years ago, though the debate is far from settled. [99] [102] Even the traditional placement of turtles outside Diapsida could not be ruled out at that time. A combined analysis of morphological and molecular data conducted by Lee (2001) found turtles to be anapsids (though a relationship with archosaurs could not be statistically rejected). [107] Similarly, a morphological study conducted by Lyson et al .. (2010) recovered them as anapsids most closely related to Eunotosaurus. [108]

A 2012 molecular analysis of 248 nuclear genes from 16 vertebrate taxa suggests that turtles are a sister group to birds and crocodiles (the Archosauria). [109] The date of separation of turtles and birds and crocodiles was estimated to be 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, was estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago. [110] [111] The oldest definitive crown-group turtle (member of the modern clade Testudines) is Caribemys oxfordiensis from the late Jurassic period (Oxfordian stage). [110] Through genomic-scale phylogenetic analysis of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) to investigate the placement of turtles within reptiles, Crawford et al. (2012) similarly suggest that turtles are a sister group to birds and crocodiles (Archosauria). [112]

The first genome-wide phylogenetic analysis was completed by Wang et al. (2013). Using the draft genomes of Chelonia mydas and Pelodiscus sinensis, the team again concluded that turtles are likely a sister group of crocodilians and birds (Archosauria). This placement within the diapsids suggests that the turtle lineage once had a diapsid-like skull with temporary openings behind the eye socket, whereas turtles now possess an anapsid-like skull without such openings. [113] The external phylogeny of the turtles is shown in the cladogram below. [112]

Internal phylogeny

The cladogram, from Thompson et al, 2021, shows the internal phylogeny of the Testudines down to the level of families. Thompson and colleagues comment that extant turtles have very low diversity, given the group's age. Diversity increased steadily in their analysis, speciation occurring at a greater rate than extinction, except for a single rapid increase around the Eocene-Oligocene boundary some 30 million years ago, and a major regional extinction at roughly the same time. They suggest that global climate change caused both events, as the cooling and drying caused land to become arid and turtles to become extinct there, while new continental margins exposed by the climate change provided habitats for other species to evolve. [114]

Differences between the two suborders

Turtles are divided into two extant suborders: Cryptodira and Pleurodira. Turtles in the two groups differ in the way the neck is retracted, and in the shape of the head. The Cryptodira is the larger group, and includes all the marine turtles, the terrestrial tortoises, and many of the freshwater turtles. The Pleurodira or side-necked turtles is a smaller group, consisting primarily of freshwater turtles. Until 3,000 years ago, there was a third group: the family Meiolaniidae was then extant, but it lay outside the Testudines crown group, belonging to Perichelydia. [115]

Pleurodirans retract their neck laterally to the side, anterior to the shoulder girdles, whereas cryptodirans retract their neck back into their shell by bending the neck into an S-like shape. These motions are largely due to the morphology and arrangement of cervical vertebrae. The cervical column consists of nine joints and eight independent vertebrae. [116] [117] These vertebrae are round and not fused, making the neck more flexible and allowing it to bend backwards and sideways. [116] The primary function and evolutionary implication of neck retraction is thought to be for feeding rather than protection. [118] Neck retraction and extension allow the turtle to reach out further to capture prey while swimming. Neck extension creates suction when the head is thrust forward and the oropharynx is expanded. This morphology suggests the retraction function is for feeding purposes, as the suction helps catch prey. [118]

The shape of the head differs between the two suborders, as the jaw musculature is associated with different bones in the two groups. The adductor muscles in the lower jaw create a pulley-like system in both subgroups however the bone in which the muscles articulate with differ. In Pleurodira, the pulley is formed with the pterygoid bones, but in Cryptodires the pulley is formed with the quadrate bones. Both of these systems help to vertically redirect the adductor muscles in order to create a powerful bite. [119]

Turtles are widely distributed across the world’s continents and oceans, being absent mainly from the polar regions, the northern parts of North America and Eurasia, and the driest regions of the Sahara, Arabia and Australia. There are terrestrial, fully aquatic, and semi-aquatic species, and within those realms they live in a wide range of habitats from pelagic (open ocean) to rivers, ponds, rainforest and deserts. Individual species have much narrower habitat preferences, so that few ecoregions have more than 5 species living together. [120]

The two major groups of turtles have different distributions and habitat ranges. The Pleurodira are all semi-aquatic or fully aquatic, and are found only in the Southern Hemisphere. [120] The Cryptodira include terrestrial, freshwater and marine species these are found across the Northern Hemisphere, and in South America and Africa within the Southern Hemisphere. [120]

Richest regions

The world regions richest in turtle species are the Amazon basin, the Southeastern United States, the coastal countries of tropical West Africa, and an extended area of ​​South and Southeast Asia from the Himalayas to Bengal, Myanmar and Thailand to the Malay peninsula, Sumatra, the island of Borneo, Cambodia, Vietnam, and the southern coastal area of ​​China (the south of Guangxi and Guangdong provinces). [121]

Habitat range

Some turtles are found at high altitude for example, the species Ornate embankment occurs up to 6,600 feet (2,000 m) in New Mexico. [122] Conversely, the leatherback sea turtle, Dermochelys coriacea, can dive to 4,100 feet (1,200 m). [123] The desert tortoises, Gopherus spp. can tolerate body temperatures from below freezing to at least 104 ° F (40 ° C), though they are inactive (remaining in their burrows) at the lowest and highest temperatures. [124]

With between 48 and 54% of all 328 species considered threatened, turtles are at a much higher risk of extinction than many other vertebrates. [2] [125] Of the 263 species of freshwater and terrestrial turtles, 117 species are considered threatened, 73 are either endangered or critically endangered, and 1 is extinct. Of the 58 species in the family Testudinidae, 33 are threatened, 18 are either endangered or critically endangered, 1 is extinct in the wild, and 7 are extinct. 71% of all tortoise species are either gone or almost gone. Asian species are the most endangered, closely followed by the five endemic species of Madagascar. [2] Turtles face many threats, including habitat destruction, harvesting for consumption, the pet trade, [126] [127] light pollution, [128] and climate change. [129] The high extinction risk for Asian species is primarily due to their long-term unsustainable exploitation for consumption and traditional Chinese medicine, [16] and to a lesser extent for the international pet trade. [126] Turtle extinction is progressing much faster than during the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction at the current rate, all turtles could be extinct in less than a century. [130]

Turtle hatcheries can be set up when protection against flooding, erosion, predation or heavy poaching is required. [133] [134] [135] Chinese entrepreneurs have sought to satisfy increasing demand for turtle meat as gourmet food and traditional medicine with farmed turtles, instead of wild-caught ones according to a 2007 study, over a thousand turtle farms operated in China . [136] [137] Turtle farms in Oklahoma and Louisiana raise turtles for export to China. [137] All the same, wild turtles continue to be caught and sent to market in large numbers (as well as to turtle farms, to be used as breeding stock, resulting in what conservationists have called "the Asian turtle crisis". [138 ] In the words of the biologist George Amato, the hunting of turtles "vacuumed up entire species from areas in Southeast Asia", even as biologists still did not know how many species lived in the region. [139] About 75% of Asia's 90 tortoise and freshwater turtle species are considered threatened. [137] In 2000, all the Asian box turtles (Heart spp.) were placed on the CITES list of endangered species. [16]

Harvesting wild turtles is legal in some American states [137] most of the catch is exported to Asia. The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission estimated in 2008 that around 3,000 pounds of softshell turtles were exported each week via Tampa International Airport. [140] However, the vast majority of turtles exported from the US are farmed. [137] [141]

Large numbers of marine turtles are accidentally killed in the nets of fishing trawlers as bycatch. A 2010 study suggested that over 8 million had been killed in 20 years the Eastern Pacific and the Mediterranean were identified as among the worst affected areas. [131] In 1987, the United States required all shrimp trawlers to fit their nets with turtle excluding devices these have bars preventing turtles from being swept into the back of the net and drowning. [132] More locally, other human activities are affecting marine turtles. In Australia, Queensland’s shark culling program, which uses shark nets and drum lines, has since 1962 killed over 5,000 turtles as bycatch. [142] [143] The program has killed 719 loggerhead turtles and 33 critically endangered hawksbill turtles. [143] New South Wales's shark control program has similarly killed at least 5,000 turtles. [144] [145] [146]

World Turtle

4th century sculpture of turtle avatar of Vishnu. Garhwa, India

The 7th century Uttana Kurmasana, upside-down turtle pose, named for the avatar of Vishnu

World resting on four elephants on the back of the World Turtle. Western depiction of "The Hindu Earth", 1877

In Hindu mythology, the World Turtle, named Kurma or Kacchapa, supports four elephants on his back they in turn carry the weight of the whole world on their backs. [147] [148] The turtle is one of the ten avatars or incarnations of the god Vishnu. [147] The 7th century hatha yoga pose Uttana Kurmasana is named for the avatar. [149] [150]

World Turtles are found in Native American cultures including the Algonquian, Iroquois, and Lenape. They tell many versions of the creation story of Turtle Island. One version has Muskrat pile up earth on Turtle's back, creating the continent of North America. An Iroquois version has the pregnant Sky Woman fall through a hole in the sky between a tree's roots, where she is caught by birds who land her safely on Turtle's back the Earth grows around her. The turtle here is altruistic, but the world is a heavy burden, and the turtle sometimes shakes itself to relieve the load, causing earthquakes. [147] [151] [152]

A "cosmic turtle" and the island motif reappear in Gary Snyder's 1974 novel Turtle Island, and again in Terry Pratchett's Discworld series as A'Tuin the Great, starting with the 1983 novel The Color of Magic it is supposedly of the species Chelys galactica, the galactic turtle, complete with four elephants on its back to support Discworld. [153]

In culture

Babylonian Kudurru with turtle (top), symbol of the god Enki, c. 1100 BC

Turtles (in basket) and other seafood in a fishmonger's shop by Bartolomeo Passerotti, 1580s

Poster for 1898 production of The Turtle at the Manhattan Theater, Broadway

Terrapin shell leg rattles worn by lead Cherokee woman dancer, 20th century

Turtles have featured in human cultures across the world since ancient times. A turtle was the symbol of the Ancient Mesopotamian god Enki, from the 3rd millennium BC onwards. [154] An ancient Greek origin myth told that only the tortoise refused the invitation of the gods Zeus and Hera to their wedding, as it preferred to stay at home Zeus ordered it to carry its house with it, ever after. [155] Another of their gods, Hermes, invented a seven-stringed lyre named the chelys or "tortoise" its domed back was made of tortoiseshell. [156] Other cultures too used turtle shells to make music: Native American shamans made them into ceremonial rattles, while Aztecs, Mayas and Mixtecs made ayotl drums. [157] In China, the turtle was one of the four sacred animals in Confucianism, while in the Han period, steles were mounted on top of stone turtles, later linked with Bixi, the turtle-shelled son of the Dragon King. [158] Marine turtles feature significantly in Australian Aboriginal art. [148]

The army of Ancient Rome used the turtle ("tortoise") formation in battles, especially sieges it consisted of a tight pack of infantry, their shields held overhead to form a shield wall like the interlocking scutes of a tortoise's shell. [159] In Aesop's Fables, "The Tortoise and the Hare" tells how an unequal race may be won by the slower partner. [160]

Lewis Carroll's 1865 Alice's Adventures in Wonderland features a Mock Turtle, named for a soup meant to imitate the expensive soup made from real turtle meat. [161] [162] In 1896, the French playwright Léon Gandillot wrote a comedy in three acts named The Turtle it was "a Parisian sensation" [163] in its run in France, and came to the Manhattan Theater, Broadway, New York in 1898 as The Turtle. [164] More recently, turtles have featured in comic books and animations such as of the 1984 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles. [165] Since the start of the 20th century, people in North America have organized turtle races, sometimes with children riding them. [166] [167] [168]

The pets

Some turtles, particularly small terrestrial and freshwater species, are kept as pets. They are seen by some people as cheap pets that need little care, underestimating the complexity and expense of proper turtle and tortoise husbandry. [169] In Europe, turtle keeping became popular in the 1960s and 1970s, when large numbers of wild-caught turtles and tortoises were imported this was especially devastating to the Mediterranean tortoise population. In the 1980s the import of wild-caught tortoises started to be banned in various countries. Most turtles and tortoises for sale in Europe today are captive-bred. [169] In the United States, because of the risk of contracting salmonellosis through casual contact with turtles, it is illegal to sell turtles under 4 inches (10 cm) long as pets but many stores and flea markets exploit a loophole which allows turtles under 4 in (100 mm) to be sold for educational purposes. [170] [171]

As food and other uses

The flesh of turtles, calipash or calipee, has long been considered a delicacy in Asian cultures, [172] while turtle soup was once a prized dish in Anglo-American cuisine. [173] Gopher tortoise stew has been popular with some groups in Florida. [174] Fat from turtles is used in the Caribbean and in Mexico as a main ingredient in cosmetics, marketed under its Spanish name turtle cream. [175] The supposed aphrodisiac or medicinal properties of turtle eggs created a large trade for them in Southeast Asia. [148] Turtle plastrons are widely used in traditional Chinese medicine Taiwan imports hundreds of tons of plastrons every year. [176] A popular medicinal preparation based on herbs with or without powdered turtle plastron is guilinggao jelly. [177] Tortoiseshell, usually from the hawksbill turtle, has been used for centuries to make jewelry, tools and ornaments around the Western Pacific. [148] It was widely used around the world, including in Europe, until the trade was banned by international treaty in 2014. The material was sliced ​​thinly to manufacture practical and decorative items such as combs, spectacle frames, furniture inlays, and guitar picks . [178]

Catching turtles in Australia, 1875

Turtles on sale as food in Canada, 2007

A tortoiseshell comb the material was expensive and decorative, and widely used for small items. [178]


EXCLUSIVE! Policeman Marian Godina lives on a salary of 1,800 lei per month! He was forcibly executed by the bank! The boss who humiliated him has almost 10,000 lei a month

Marian Godina, the pamphlet policeman who had the courage to reveal the abuses from IPJ Brasov, lives on a salary of 1,800 lei.

Marian Godina has no real estate or land in his name, his only fortune being a Peugeot 306 car manufactured in 1996. Instead, the policeman had two loans at the bank, one of 1200 lei, contracted in 2010 and the second of 10,000 euros, since 2006. If he managed to pay the first one before the deadline, he had some problems with the second one.

In 2013, the bank demanded and obtained the forced execution against the policeman. In the same year, his boss, Quaestor Ioan Aron, whom Godina claims humiliated him by asking him if he masturbated while reading the girls' answers on his Facebook page, ranked second in the top of the highest paid police officers. from Romania, with a net salary of 9,836 lei per month.

From this point of view, the initial act, by which Godina announces his resignation from the police, was equivalent to a "suicide" from a financial point of view, because the policeman has no other source of income besides his salary from IPJ Brasov.

To be honest, Marian Godina becomes, starting today, a writer, having this afternoon the launch of his first book, "Flashes from the opposite direction". Although due to the events of these days it is expected that the volume will sell like hot cakes, it is hard to believe that the policeman will get rich from this book.


European lawyer

A European lawyer, beyond the self-evident definition of 'a lawyer in Europe', also refers to a specific definition introduced by the UK's European Communities (Services of Lawyers) Order 1978, which permits lawyers from other EU member states to practice law within the UK, in accordance with EU directive 77/249 / EEC.

The term EU lawyer is also used in UK law. [1]

The order contains a list of countries of origin and the designations which the order applies to for example a professional "entitled to pursue his professional activities" [2] such as an "advokat" in Finland, may practice Europe-wide as a "European lawyer ".

The order also imposes temporary limitations on the types of legal work which may be carried out by such persons. Lawyers from other European countries practicing in the UK must be associated with appropriate co-counsel and upon demand by a competent authority they must verify their status. [2]

After a possible temporary limitation such as the aforementioned, an EU lawyer may acquire and use the title of the country he / she is residing and working in, usually after three years of practice under the title of origin (and possible restrictions) or after an examination that confirms equivalence. The choice is up to the professional, not the bar or country.

The full list of professions to whom the title 'European Lawyer' is applicable follows

distinction, university or practical experience paths

Scotland: 3-4 year degree + 1 year Diploma + 2-year training contract

Scotland: 3-4 year degree + 1 year Diploma + experience in a solicitor's office + pupillage + exam


Godina Cake - Recipes

"I want to know the names of those from Caracal

You know what happened. The little girl called 112 three times at 11 o'clock. I don't want to talk about the monster in the house. They will always exist. I don't even want to talk about the incompetent system that found the address so well described by the girl only at 03 o'clock.

I want to talk about the policemen who arrived at the scene at 3 o'clock and waited for the prosecutor's warrant or what their dead waited for until 6 o'clock while from the house it was heard "Let me kill you!". I want to know who they are. I want to know who these militiamen are who did not throw away their clothes and pistols, did not put their hands on their stakes and did not enter the lair of the monster if they really considered that they did not have the right to intervene as policemen. With any risk. At the risk of being fired or even arrested later. Who had the courage to do it if they saved her? Who had the courage to turn them from heroes into martyrs and sign their own condemnation ?!

I want to know who those boys are who patrolled safely in front of the house. I wish I was in their place. Or some bad guys with active crimes I know. Or even Marian Godina. Or at least my 9-year-old son with two classmates from school. Everyone I think was doing more.

I want to know who they are. Name, surname, degree and pictures. I want to make them famous. I want people on the street to recognize him. Give a share, maybe the people who know them write to me. Neighbors, journalists, something. I make them stars! ", Maticiuc wrote on Facebook.


Professor Năstăselu: "I WOULD LIKE AN EARTHQUAKE IN THE MIND OF THE ROMANIANS TO AWAKEN THIS SAD, BUT HUMORFUL PEOPLE FROM THE DROP!"

Another earthquake passed over Romania, it's good that it was just like that. Many Romanians found themselves terrified, especially those who caught the one from ’77. Unfortunately, such phenomena only bring misfortune. I would like an earthquake in the minds of Romanians, an earthquake that will awaken from numbness this sad people, but full of humor. If other peoples are agitated and take a stand, they fight when something is wrong, we make fun of trouble, but aren't we the people of paradoxes? We, the Romanians, do not put someone in charge when someone is not good at anything, when the cow is barren we put her in charge of the herd, we declare brilliant geniuses and brilliant fools, business thieves, honest fools, brave fools ? Whose prodest? I certainly use all this for the garbage that, of course, we also paradoxically declared flowers. Brethren, shit can't be a cake because it doesn't smell, it stinks! I have also said on other occasions that silence and lack of attitude to what is happening today in Romania means complicity, and the Romanian people participate in the destruction of their future. What else should happen to awaken this people?

Vălu Năstăselu is a history teacher at the “Ștefan cel Mare” National College in Târgu Neamț. Born on August 13, 1953, in the commune of Valea Stanciului in Dolj County, Vălu Năstăselu attended high school in Bucharest and then the faculty he graduated in 1976. He was assigned to Neamț in the same year, and since then he has taught at several schools, both in rural and urban areas. Since 1999 he has been a history teacher at the “Ștefan cel Mare” National College in Târgu Neamț.


Marian Godină, outraged after the violent death of the policeman from Suceava

The death of a policeman from Suceava County, during the service because he would have fined someone who did not have a train ticket, saddened and outraged Marian Godină. He posted on Facebook an image with several Romanian police officers who lost their lives during the service.

His images are accompanied by the message & # 8222Where the count ends & # 8230 to be protected by law & # 8220.

In the image posted by Marian Godină, there are five policemen who lost their lives on duty. The first from the top left is the policeman Sorin Vezeteu from Suceava County, who died on Thursday night to Friday, July 21.

In the upper right Gheorghe Nistor from Vişeul de Jos, Maramureş County, a policeman killed on Wednesday, January 4, 2017 in his office, by several stab wounds, and at his funeral came hundreds of people and many colleagues from the police.

Another image, bottom right, is of the policeman Bogdan Gigină, who died while riding his motorcycle in the column of the former Minister of Interior Gabriel Oprea. The policeman in the middle, the bottom row, is Gheorghe Ionescu, nicknamed & # 8222Dulăul & # 8221, killed by car by the Turkish citizen Abdullah Atas.


Marian Godină did not have peace on his birthday either. What happened to the policeman is a story

Marian had just prepared to take her parents and bring them to his home to celebrate her birthday together. Just as they were all in the car, he received a phone call from a co-worker. He had informed him that he urgently needed to report to the ward to go on a mission. Embarrassed by the situation, Marian Godină took his parents home to him and without much explanation he took his uniform and obeyed the order.

According to him, "some thieves in the houses wanted to celebrate their birthday by visiting them & # 8221.

After "celebrating" her birthday, Marian Godină said all about it on her social media page.

"Yesterday was my birthday, a common day for me, which I never celebrated with a party, once because I always considered that I had no merit because I simply appeared in the world. that day and the second time because I'm not the party man.

If I think about it, I've been to a club a maximum of four times in my life and then forced by circumstances. It is certain that each time I stayed there for a maximum of two hours, during which time I studied what was happening, trying to find out what those young people found fun there. I didn't succeed and I resigned myself to the thought that somewhere in my brain, the part with fun like that is missing.

Knowing a lot of nice people who spend time like this, I came to the conclusion that the defect is mine. The fact that I do not drink alcohol is again a defect that I have.

And I'm not talking about cruel drunkenness here, but two, three glasses of wine that, consumed at a wedding or another occasion, I notice that make the partygoers feel much better, in contrast to me, who is retired to a table and I get terribly bored.

Ever since I got married, joining Georgiana's family, I started receiving my birthday cake, with candles and wishes sung by & # 8222A Happy Birthday & # 8221, a position that I found very embarrassing, but which I accepted as a tradition, normality, realizing that the abnormal is me.

Yesterday was my birthday, according to the new tradition, a cake occasion, happy birthday, barbecue, family, parents. The day took me off work, unlike many years in which, without bothering me at all, I was on duty

Around 1 p.m., everything was ready, I had to go pick up my parents from home and bring them to the & # 8222 party & # 8221. They were waiting for me ready already.

A colleague also called me on the phone, who had already called me in the morning to tell me & # 8222 happy birthday & # 8221, telling me that we have to be in 20 minutes on the basis that we have a mission.

We never make jokes with weapons, ammunition and missions, it's a clear rule, but I kept asking him if he was making fun of me. He told me he wasn't doing such a thing and gave me some details about the mission to strengthen my belief that he wasn't making fun.

I got dressed urgently, told Georgiana I had to go to work, and cut her off the door, a little ashamed of her parents who were in the yard, of my parents who were waiting for me, and especially of my parents. Georgiana, the one who is more excited than me for my birthday.

Some house thieves really wanted me to celebrate my birthday by visiting them. In five hours I got home again and resumed & # 8222cheful & # 8221.

Thank you once again for yesterday's wishes, for today's wishes and I wish, in my turn, & # 8222Happy birthday & # 8221 to all those who celebrate their name day today & # 8221, wrote Marian Godină on her Facebook page.


Video: Торт МОЛОЧНАЯ ДЕВОЧКА. Выпечка и сборка торта. Лучший рецепт из Германии. Карамельно-творожный крем (May 2022).